Spermatophyta: Monocotyledonae: Poales

Poaceae - Grass family

Graminae

Bennett, K.E. (1980) Keys to Zimbabwean grass species. Kirkia 11(2) 169-286

Clayton, W.D. (1970) Poaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa Part 1

Clayton, W.D. (1989) Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(3)

Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982) Poaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa Part 3

Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1986) Genera Graminum. Grasses of the World. HMSO, London

Clayton, W.D. et al. (1974) Poaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa Part 2

Cope, T.A. (1999) Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(2)

Cope, T.A. (2002) Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(4)

Gibbs Russell, G.E. et al. (1990) Grasses of Southern Africa. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria

Launert, E. (1971) Poaceae Flora Zambesiaca 10(1)

Description of the family

Annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody, often with rhizomes or stolons. Culms usually cylindric, usually hollow but solid at the nodes. Leaves: alternate, 2-ranked, simple, consisting of sheath, ligule and lamina; sheath surrounding the stem, usually open; ligule usually present at junction of sheath and lamina, membranous, a row of hairs or 0; lamina linear to filiform, rarely lanceolate or ovate. Inflorescence consisting of numerous spikelets arranged in a spike, raceme or panicle. The basic unit of the inflorescence is the spikelet, consisting of a number of florets arranged distichously along an axis (rhachilla). At the base of the spikelet are 2 (rarely 0, 1 or more than 2) empty bracts (glumes). Each floret is enclosed within an outer bract (lemma) and an inner bracteole (palea). The palea is usually membranous and 2-keeled, the lemma is usually tougher and often awned. The lemma, palea and flowering parts are together called the floret. Flowers usually bisexual, but sometimes unisexual. Perianth represented by 2(–3) minute hyaline fleshy scales (lodicules). The base of the spikelet or floret may have a horny prolongation downwards (callus). Stamens (1-)3(-6); anthers versatile. Ovary superior, 1-locular with 1 ovule often attached to the adaxial side of the loculus, to a point or line visible in fruit as the hilum. Styles (1-)2(-3), generally with plumose stigmas. Fruit 1-seeded, usually a caryopsis, rarely with seed free from the pericarp.

Worldwide: 668 genera and 9,500 species, cosmopolitan, but especially tropical and northern temperate sub-arid areas.

Zambia: 3 cultivated genera and 4 cultivated taxa.

Insects associated with this family:

Acraea johnstoni (Johnston's acraea)
Bicyclus safitza (Common bush brown)
Bicyclus safitza (Common bush brown (dry season form))
Borbo borbonica (Olive-haired swift)
Melanitis leda (Common evening brown, Twilight brown)
Utetheisa pulchella (Crimson-speckled footman)
Ypthimomorpha itonia (Marsh ringlet)
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Links to cultivated genera:     View: living plant images - herbarium specimen images - all images for this family

GenusContent
Chrysopogon Trin.Description
Sorghum MoenchDescription
Zea L.Description

Other sources of information about Poaceae:

Our websites:

Flora of Botswana: Poaceae
Flora of Caprivi: Poaceae
Flora of Malawi: Poaceae
Flora of Malawi: cultivated Poaceae
Flora of Mozambique: Poaceae
Flora of Mozambique: cultivated Poaceae
Flora of Zambia: Poaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: Poaceae
Flora of Zimbabwe: cultivated Poaceae

External websites:

GRIN (Germplasm Resources Information Network) taxonomy for plants report for Poaceae
Google: Web - Images - Scholar


Copyright: Mike Bingham, Annette Willemen, Bart Wursten, Petra Ballings and Mark Hyde, 2011-17

Bingham, M.G., Willemen, A., Wursten, B.T., Ballings, P. and Hyde, M.A. (2017). Flora of Zambia: Cultivated plants: Family page: Poaceae.
http://www.zambiaflora.com/cult/family.php?family_id=177, retrieved 18 December 2017

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